Global Institutional Framework

of an Efficient Democracy

by Eckhard Sambach


Site Map

An efficient democracy requires a general understanding on the global institutional framework of the society.
  1. The global institutional framework. It is a public good, i.e. it is open to all citizens and can be created and maintained only by the public institutions (parliament and government) and independent sovereign institutions. Creating and maintaining this framework is their essential task.
    1. The characteristics of this framework are:
      1. Safety (internal and external)
      2. Internal stability
        1. of political institutions and procedures
        2. of the price levels of GDP and assets (non-financial and financial)
        3. of the legal system
        4. of the financial system
      3. Continuity in public life, i.e. absence of intended disturbances
      4. Particular support to citizens who without their fault are unable to earn themselves the means of decent existence.
      5. Provisions for entering and leaving an institutional unit (region, nation, international organization) if the population concerned is wishing so.
    2. The elements of the global institutional framework are:
      1. A system of incentives and deterrence leading politicians and citizens to respect the principles of an efficient democracy as well as the general interest in the medium and long term. Its main elements are :
        1. A system of flexible relative prices expressing scarcity of and demand for goods and services, financial assets and liabilities and thereby guiding them to the most productive uses
        2. legal system (codes, laws, regulations) accepted by the citizens and guiding politicians and citizens to respect the general interest and thereby being the basis of rational administration. - In case of conflict between several legislative provisions will be applied the provision ensuring most largely the general well-being in the medium and long term.
        3. A set of traditions encouraging civil behavior and the sense of responsibility
      2. A particular institutional protection of the general interest in the medium and long term. It is ensured by an Independent Authority (more).
      3. A procedure for preparing, setting up and electing the governmental program : Instead of choosing among political parties and their candidates, the citizens elect the program of government among the draft programs presented by the political parties. This implies a procedure for preparing and setting up the draft programs and for electing the program.
        1. Draft programs
          1. Preparing the bases
            1. Preferences . The citizens express periodically (e.g. every two years) in a standardized questionnaire (set up and analyzed by independent organizations of the civil society)  their opinion on the fundamental problems of economic, social and political life, in particular
              1. to which political tasks they assign priority ,
              2. which public activities
                1. should be reinforced or reduced (to maintain the pressure of taxes and contributions within acceptable limits)
                2. should be handled by the private sector, if they can be provided and/or used more efficiently outside the public sector.
              3. in which fields they would be ready
                1. to accept an (honorary) activity in a cultural, social, teaching or administrative organization,
                2. to accept new conditions and/or constraints (e.g. prolongation of the working time during a year or of professional activity, reduction of (social) advantages decided by the authorities
            2. The principles of operation of the society (more),
            3. The proposals for reforms conceived by independent institutions and organizations
          2. Setting up of draft governmental programs: On these bases each political party is drawing up and presenting its own project according to the requirements of a "Standardized System of Comprehensive Political Program". In this draft, each party sets out
            1. to which political objectives it is assigning priority, i.e.
              1. to the tasks of public authorities which are insufficiently realized or which deserve an adjustment
              2. to the necessary adjustments of the global framework
            2. to the instruments intended for implementing these objectives (if possible during the legislature) (more)
        2. Electing the program of government,  possibly in a two turn procedure.
          1. First turn: That project is elected which received the absolute majority of votes cast by the citizens having right to vote. The two political parties, whose projects received the highest number of votes, enter into Parliament (according to the proportion of votes cast for their projects).
          2. Second turn: Take part in this turn the three projects having received the highest number of votes in the first turn. Is elected the project having received the greatest number of votes; enter into Parliament the two political parties whose projects received the greatest number of votes (according to the proportion of votes cast for their respective projects).
        3. Execution: The elected program is carried out by the government under the control of the Parliament.
        4. Duration : The governmental period (legislature) is sufficiently long (five years) enabling the government
          1. to set up and to carry out the policy laid down in the governmental program and
          2. to be judged on the effects of the policies.
      4. Distribution of responsibilities among the main actors in society (more)
(1) The numbering of items corresponds to that of the Site Map (A - i) and is used, if necessary,
a second time (A - i -A -i)

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- A comparison between these conditions and the reality shows the type and extent of necessary reforms -

The author is grateful for
proposals for improvement

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